There is no doubt that blacks continue to face discrimination in America. This discrimination occurs on the roads, in the neighborhoods and in the workplace.
On the Roads:
According to the Rhode Island Traffic Stop Statistics 2004-2005: “As with most racial profiling studies, the Rhode Island traffic stop study relied upon law enforcement officers to self-report all information about traffic stops. After being stopped, statewide 2.9% of white drivers and 5.9% of non-white drivers were subject to a discretionary search, defined as all searches except searches incident to a lawful arrest. To address concerns about whether or not inventory searches should be considered a discretionary search, a second discretionary search category was created to include all searches except those searches incident to a lawful arrest or the inventory of a vehicle. Using this broader definition, statewide 1.8% of white drivers were subject to an extra discretionary search compared to 4.0% of non-white drivers.”
According to a similar report from Massachusetts: “Statewide the average disparity between non-white drivers cited and non-whites in the driving population estimate was 2.6%… we found that non-white drivers were still significantly more likely to be searched than white drivers in 26
communities… out of the 142 communities that could be included in our sample of citations and warnings non-white drivers were significantly more likely to receive a citation in 58% or 83 of the communities. When examining only drivers who were cited for speeding violations 15 mph or less over the posted speed limit, 73.6% of white drivers received a citation compared to 82.6% of non-white drivers – a statistically significant difference of 9%.”
According to HUD: “Key findings of the Department of Housing and Urban Development analysis show that: 1) From 1993 to 1998, the number of subprime refinancing loans increased ten-fold. 2) Subprime loans are three times more likely in low income neighborhoods than in high-income neighborhoods. 3) Subprime loans are five times more likely in black neighborhoods than in white neighborhoods. 4) Homeowners in high-income black areas are twice as likely as homeowners in low-income white areas to have subprime loans.”
According to another HUD study: In a paired test, two individuals— one minority and the other white— pose as otherwise identical homeseekers, and visit real estate or rental agents to inquire about the availability of advertised housing units. This methodology provides direct evidence of differences in the treatment minorities and whites experience when they search for housing.
– Whites were consistently favored over blacks in 21.6 percent of tests.
– Whites were more likely to receive information about available housing units, and had more opportunities to inspect available units.
– White homebuyers were consistently favored over blacks in 17.0 percent of tests.
– White homebuyers were more likely to be able to inspect available homes and to be shown homes in more predominantly white neighborhoods than comparable blacks.
In the Workplace:
Complaints about racial discrimination in the workplace increased dramatically in the 1990s, acording to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) reports. Also according to the EEOC, blacks are far less likely to be executives and other high level managers than whites.
In studies by Western and Pager, two noted sociologists, there is substantial hiring discrimination based on race. “Our first set of results come from the three-person team in which a white, Hispanic, and black tester applied to the same set of employers presenting identical qualifications. For each set of visits, we recorded whether testers were offered the job on the spot, or, at some later point, called back for a second interview (which we refer to together as “positive responses.”). The proportion of positive responses depends strongly on the race of the job applicant. This comparison demonstrates a strong racial hierarchy, with whites in the lead, followed by Latinos, with blacks trailing far behind. These outcomes suggest that blacks are only slightly more than half as likely to receive consideration by employers relative to equally qualified white applicants.”
Racial discrimination in America is a fact, it is widespread and it has a long history. These facts are not seriously in dispute.